Kaishakunin (介錯人) entsprach in etwa dem im Westen Sekundant genannten „Unterstützenden“ beim Seppuku, dem ritualisierten Suizid japanischer Samurai. Bekannt ist auch der Mythos der Samurai, die sich in ausweglosen in Japan circa sieben Suizide pro Jahr (Deutschland: knapp fünf). Februar begehen 46 Samurai auf Befehl des Shogun Selbstmord. Seppuku. Das heißt, sie schlitzen sich die Bäuche auf. Das ist der.
Harakiri mit WandschrankDie Seppuku der Samurai – der Selbstmord durch das Schwert – bekannter unter dem Begriff Harakiri, sind heute wohl den meisten ein Begriff. Daneben gibt es. Der Seppuku ist ein ritueller Selbstmord und in Europa besser bekannt als Hara-Kiri. Im Jahrhundert greifen erste Samurai zu diesem. Seppuku (jap. 切腹) bezeichnet eine ritualisierte Art des männlichen Suizids, die etwa ab der Mitte des Jahrhunderts in Japan innerhalb der Schicht der Samurai verbreitet war und Auch Frauen verübten zuweilen ritualisierten Suizid, dieser wurde jedoch mit dem generischen Begriff jigai (自害) bezeichnet.
Samurai Suizid Inhaltsverzeichnis VideoThe Actor who staged a Coup and committed Seppuku (Strange Stories)
Further, if one should blunder, it becomes a lifetime disgrace. In the practice of past times, there were instances when the head flew off.
It was said that it was best to cut leaving a little skin remaining so that it did not fly off in the direction of the verifying officials. The retainer would make one deep, horizontal cut into his abdomen, then quickly bandage the wound.
After this, the person would then appear before his lord, give a speech in which he announced the protest of the lord's action, then reveal his mortal wound.
It involves a second and more painful vertical cut on the belly. Female ritual suicide incorrectly referred to in some English sources as jigai , was practiced by the wives of samurai who have performed seppuku or brought dishonor.
The main purpose was to achieve a quick and certain death in order to avoid capture. Before committing suicide, a woman would often tie her knees together so her body would be found in a dignified pose, despite the convulsions of death.
Invading armies would often enter homes to find the lady of the house seated alone, facing away from the door. On approaching her, they would find that she had ended her life long before they reached her.
Stephen R. Turnbull provides extensive evidence for the practice of female ritual suicide, notably of samurai wives, in pre-modern Japan.
One of the largest mass suicides was the 25 April final defeat of Taira no Tomomori. Voluntary death by drowning was a common form of ritual or honour suicide.
Though both Long's story and Puccini's opera predate Hearn's use of the term jigai , the term has been used in relation to western japonisme which is the influence of Japanese culture on the western arts.
While the voluntary seppuku is the best known form, in practice the most common form of seppuku was obligatory seppuku , used as a form of capital punishment for disgraced samurai, especially for those who committed a serious offense such as rape, robbery, corruption, unprovoked murder or treason.
The samurai were generally told of their offense in full and given a set time for them to commit seppuku , usually before sunset on a given day.
Unlike voluntary seppuku , seppuku carried out as capital punishment by executioners did not necessarily absolve, or pardon, the offender's family of the crime.
Depending on the severity of the crime, all or part of the property of the condemned could be confiscated, and the family would be punished by being stripped of rank, sold into long-term servitude, or executed.
Seppuku was considered the most honorable capital punishment apportioned to samurai. On February 15, , eleven French sailors of the Dupleix entered the town of Sakai without official permission.
Their presence caused panic among the residents. Security forces were dispatched to turn the sailors back to their ship, but a fight broke out and the sailors were shot dead.
Upon the protest of the French representative, financial compensation was paid, and those responsible were sentenced to death. As each samurai committed ritual disembowelment, the violent act shocked the captain, [ citation needed ] and he requested a pardon, as a result of which nine of the samurai were spared.
In his book Tales of Old Japan , he describes a man who had come to the graves to kill himself:. I will add one anecdote to show the sanctity which is attached to the graves of the Forty-seven.
In the month of September , a certain man came to pray before the grave of Oishi Chikara. Having finished his prayers, he deliberately performed hara-kiri, and, the belly wound not being mortal, dispatched himself by cutting his throat.
Upon his person were found papers setting forth that, being a Ronin and without means of earning a living, he had petitioned to be allowed to enter the clan of the Prince of Choshiu , which he looked upon as the noblest clan in the realm; his petition having been refused, nothing remained for him but to die, for to be a Ronin was hateful to him, and he would serve no other master than the Prince of Choshiu: what more fitting place could he find in which to put an end to his life than the graveyard of these Braves?
This happened at about two hundred yards' distance from my house, and when I saw the spot an hour or two later, the ground was all bespattered with blood, and disturbed by the death-struggles of the man.
There are many stories on record of extraordinary heroism being displayed in the harakiri. The case of a young fellow, only twenty years old, of the Choshiu clan, which was told me the other day by an eye-witness, deserves mention as a marvellous instance of determination.
Not content with giving himself the one necessary cut, he slashed himself thrice horizontally and twice vertically.
Then he stabbed himself in the throat until the dirk protruded on the other side, with its sharp edge to the front; setting his teeth in one supreme effort, he drove the knife forward with both hands through his throat, and fell dead.
During the Meiji Restoration , the Tokugawa shogun's aide performed seppuku:. One more story and I have done. During the revolution, when the Taikun Supreme Commander , beaten on every side, fled ignominiously to Yedo , he is said to have determined to fight no more, but to yield everything.
The practitioner will make a deep, horizontal cut in his stomach, then quickly bandage the wound. This form of seppuku is different from Funshi, which is a form of Seppuku done to state dissatisfaction towards other people.
Movies and dramas always show samurai men as the ones who committed Seppuku. However, we know that females of the samurai family have their own suicide ritual, called Jigai.
The females had been taught about Jigai since they were children. It was usually practiced by the wives of samurai who have committed Seppuku, or by those who have brought dishonour to the family.
The practitioner would often tie her knees together so that her body would be found in a dignified pose, despite the convulsions of death. She would then cut the arteries of the neck with one stroke, using a knife.
The main purpose was to achieve a quick and certain death in order to avoid capture. Seppuku was also practiced as a capital punishment.
It was a punishment for disgraced samurai who have committed crimes such as rape, robbery, corruption, and treason. Seppuku was considered as the most suitable punishment given to a Samurai.
The Emperor became only a figurehead and a parliamentary government was put in place, rendering seppuku a tradition that had no place in the Japan that emerged in the second half of the 20th century.
After learning about seppuku, check out more of Japan's Imperial era and be sure and dive deeper into the lost ways of the last samurai.
By Joel Stice. These fascinating facts illuminate the grisly ritualistic suicide practice of seppuku once carried out by Japan's elite samurai.
Like this gallery? Share it: Share Tweet Email. In accordance with the Bushido code, which held honor above all else, a samurai would perform seppuku to avoid capture or as punishment for breaking this sacred code.
In this illustration, a warrior prepares himself to perform seppuku, Wikimedia Commons. In this story, warrior Minamoto no Tametomo was said to have reacted to defeat by cutting his own stomach open.
In this colorized photo possibly a reenactment , a warrior performs seppuku. By the middle of the 19th century, seppuku was on the decline along with the samurai way of life.
However, it would still be roughly years before its practice had all but been phased out of Japanese culture. Here a samurai is shown in the process of committing seppuku, his death poem at his feet.
Circa Getty Images. This photo shows a disassembled antique tanto and its smaller dagger counterpart. As with all things related to seppuku, how the tanto was inserted into the gut was carried out in a specific way.
Women of the samurai class often committed seppuku if their husbands died in battle or were forced to kill themselves.
They also might kill themselves if their castle was besieged and ready to fall, so as to avoid being raped.
To prevent an unseemly posture after death, women would first bind their legs together with a silk cloth. Some cut their abdomens as male samurai did, while others would use a blade to slit the jugular veins in their necks instead.
At the end of the Boshin War , the Saigo family alone saw twenty-two women commit seppuku rather than surrendering. The word "seppuku" comes from the words setsu , meaning "to cut," and fuku meaning "abdomen.
Share Flipboard Email. Kallie Szczepanski. History Expert. Kallie Szczepanski is a history teacher specializing in Asian history and culture.